paste.lint – Check for the validity of WSGI requests and responses
Middleware to check for obedience to the WSGI specification.
Some of the things this checks:
- Signature of the application and start_response (including that
keyword arguments are not used).
- Environment checks:
- Environment is a dictionary (and not a subclass).
- That all the required keys are in the environment: REQUEST_METHOD,
SERVER_NAME, SERVER_PORT, wsgi.version, wsgi.input, wsgi.errors,
wsgi.multithread, wsgi.multiprocess, wsgi.run_once
- That HTTP_CONTENT_TYPE and HTTP_CONTENT_LENGTH are not in the
environment (these headers should appear as CONTENT_LENGTH and
- Warns if QUERY_STRING is missing, as the cgi module acts
unpredictably in that case.
- That CGI-style variables (that don’t contain a .) have
(non-unicode) string values
- That wsgi.version is a tuple
- That wsgi.url_scheme is ‘http’ or ‘https’ (@@: is this too
- Warns if the REQUEST_METHOD is not known (@@: probably too
- That SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO are empty or start with /
- That at least one of SCRIPT_NAME or PATH_INFO are set.
- That CONTENT_LENGTH is a positive integer.
- That SCRIPT_NAME is not ‘/’ (it should be ‘’, and PATH_INFO should
- That wsgi.input has the methods read, readline, readlines, and
- That wsgi.errors has the methods flush, write, writelines
- The status is a string, contains a space, starts with an integer,
and that integer is in range (> 100).
- That the headers is a list (not a subclass, not another kind of
- That the items of the headers are tuples of strings.
- That there is no ‘status’ header (that is used in CGI, but not in
- That the headers don’t contain newlines or colons, end in _ or -, or
contain characters codes below 037.
- That Content-Type is given if there is content (CGI often has a
default content type, but WSGI does not).
- That no Content-Type is given when there is no content (@@: is this
- That the exc_info argument to start_response is a tuple or None.
- That all calls to the writer are with strings, and no other methods
on the writer are accessed.
- That wsgi.input is used properly:
- .read() is called with zero or one argument
- That it returns a string
- That readline, readlines, and __iter__ return strings
- That .close() is not called
- No other methods are provided
- That wsgi.errors is used properly:
- .write() and .writelines() is called with a string
- That .close() is not called, and no other methods are provided.
- The response iterator:
- That it is not a string (it should be a list of a single string; a
string will work, but perform horribly).
- That .next() returns a string
- That the iterator is not iterated over until start_response has
been called (that can signal either a server or application
- That .close() is called (doesn’t raise exception, only prints to
sys.stderr, because we only know it isn’t called when the object
is garbage collected).
When applied between a WSGI server and a WSGI application, this
middleware will check for WSGI compliancy on a number of levels.
This middleware does not modify the request or response in any
way, but will throw an AssertionError if anything seems off
(except for a failure to close the application iterator, which
will be printed to stderr – there’s no way to throw an exception
at that point).
Raised in response to WSGI-spec-related warnings